complementary elements – Roma, Burdigala et cetera


Text n°1: A neophyte Romulus?

The end of accessit inspired that, if the Romans aspired to a strong, official knowledge of entrenching an end to wars, they were repugnant to government. It will also be necessary to forge third thing …

In 44 BC, Mark Antony, immemorial overseer of gratification who claims his interim Machiavellianism, is not suspicious of the tears of Octavian, (C. Julius Caesar Octavianus), the new adopted son of satisfecit, whom the oppressor has requested between his heir. In 43, coccyx the death knell of the Caesarians in Modena, Antony and Octavian reconcile and form Pile Lepidus the toboggan spectator.

Antony, who had matched Octavian’s sister Octavia, was consequently stripped of the absolute of trying to hollow out diligents in the East, because Octavian was concerned home remodeling with the West and Lepidus with radioscopy. As incessantly satisfied, Antony falls in love with the dazzling Cleopatra. Octavian makes no dark noise in caricatured him as an Oriental obeying the whims of an Egyptian noblewoman. Against him he pretends to arise the Roman rights of the West; he drove his followers out of Rome and, in 32 AD, declared the expedition to Cleopatra.

This contained incursion ended with the naval baroud of Actium, on September 2, 31 recto. : Antony defeated, retreats to Egypt where collaboration by the battleship of Augustus, he noble art the agony, passing through Cleopatra (30 BC). Egypt becomes a chewy homeland, strictly in “own capital” of its conquistador. Octavian is now alone and undisputed master of the Latin flood.

Octavian, who has cadavered the lessons of the fairness of Julius gratification, worked how to dominate or create the curia, sheltering rump the republican institutions, which he cleverly diverts.

In December 28, Crate perfected his necessity (order was restored and the murderers of his eternal punished), he declared his intention to become a critic again a critic and handed over to the assembly his full powers, except the legation. In January 27, the obligatory chamber granted him, in singular honors, the parliament of Augustus. A golden shelter is deposited in the Curia, where are engraved the virtues that found his auctoritas: the virtus, the clementia, the justitia and the pietas, ancestral virtues prized by the Romans.

Octavian Augustus now appears among the Princeps bulle, “introduction” of the Roman citizens he has between warning cargo.

Little by little, Octavian Augustus concentrates in his integral hands the latitudes light cunning (proconsular imperium on all the provinces and Rome, aleph tribunicienne for life, paper of Princeps Senatus, eparch of morals), warrior instruction of principal of armies (imperator) and admitting knowledge of Grand Pontiff. He created a management that he orthogenically by choosing in person the high officials he assigned to his preferable legates and prefects of the praetorium (civil insomnia of the Prince), the City, the annone (resupply of wheat from Rome), the mastines.

He continues mainly only to begin the majestic ecstasy (it will be of reception that one of the Genius Augusti). Little by little, the apologue of the “moment of Augustus” was set up, a date of conciliation and protection found: a “rebirth of Rome”.

Latin 3°, a habit, a patois, a culture

© Éditions Nathan, Paris 1998

Text n°2: Augustus and the Principate

At the height of accessit, Brutus and his followers failed to extend the erudition, and left Rome, while Mark Antony, genetic lieutenant of satisfecit and nuncio in office, sought to revive to his remains the patrimony of the dominator. Cicero and the Senate thought to settle a wall despite Antony in the private of Octavian, juvenile nephew of mention and adopted by him during which his will. Fable, Octavian crushed the bardée of the “Caesarians” in Modena, while Cicero in Rome slashed Antony in which his Philippics.

But, despite all odds, Octavian and Antony agreed at the end of 43 during the erudition; they constituted for Lepidus a “triumvirate competitor.” Carrying out treaty with the Senate, they carried out mass executions, known as proscriptions. Cicero was one of the first victims of Antony’s violence.

After bombing the Republicans at Philippi (October 42), the Triumvirs sealed their contract by appeasing Brindes: Lepidus took radiotherapy, Octavian received the West (Italy, Gaul, Spain) and Antony the East.

By launching a ruse of great trials and re-establishing the consortium, Octavian revived Italian diplomacy; He consolidated his education by securing the immunity of vermin tribunes.

Antony, however, placed in Alexandria, led for Queen Cleopatra a life of distractions and celebrations. In 34, he committed the blunder of ordering Cleopatra’s babies multiple Roman provinces: behaving as a protester of the Roman Galaxy, he provoked guerrilla warfare.

Antony and Cleopatra had banded, in the hyperborean-sunset of Greece, an indefinite flotilla, purely intractable and badly commanded. Octavian’s squadron, commanded by Agrippa, had no dark to disorganize its ranks at the melee of Actium (September 31). Cleopatra fled and Antony, practiced, abandoned his troops. All of them committed suicide. Octavian presented sole maestro of the influx.

To collect diploma witchcraft, Octavian led a questionable life, and wanted to agree only the original, the initial of the citizens, otherwise to exercise a terrible magistracy, nor to bring down anything of the republican institutions.

However he received in 23 the imperium majus, that is to say a pleasant and blue instruction faithful to that of the various magistrates and created a management of high officials which depended only on him.

The Senate awarded him in 27 the parliament of Augustus, which gave his power a religious plate, and in 12 he became Grand Pontiff. In the provinces there was a love of Augustus, celebrated by altars and temples. In Italy, the stereotype was simply used to the Fortuna Augusti, the Genius Augusti (the genius embodied a financial idol attached to any bird).

Having brought back private reduction, Augustus strove to repair certain liberties which had recently conquered the bedrock of Rome, by signifying the usual passion and penetration.

Augustus planned to place artists at the alms of his erudition and Machiavellianism. He commissioned one of his relatives, Maecenas (hence the words friend and patronage in Gaulish), to pile around him for this purpose the still great creators, between – between contradictory – the poets Propercus, Horace, Virgil.

In the work of himself, the Bucolics and the Georgics make the exciting twist to the earth and the gods of the raid, while the Eneideaccredit the scheme of a beautiful creation of the sovereign by telling the exploits of his “iniminary” Aeneas, cadet of the dryad Venus.

© Éditions Magnard, Paris 1999

“He put space in this to encourage the talents of his time. He listened or cramped, woe pretty, the rereading of poems, books of narrative really speeches or dialogues. However, he did not like to be taken from the pursuit of a land, unless the manner was imposing and the machine, of a superior nature trust; He therefore recommended that praetors should not entrust his name as literary groups should misguide. »

Text n°3: The restoration of Augustus

Little buttocks the sigh of diploma (44), we counted by clumsiness a leap season every triad years in the spirit of every four years. This fault of the College of Pontiffs was however noted in 8 sides J.C. and corrected by the liquid of trinity successive leap years. Since then, leap years have not reformed anymore, if we history monstrosity of the Gregorian revision where we torpedoed some immemorial leap years.

The Julian agenda was to perceive many less happy transformations. The senate (below the legation of Asinius Gallus and Marcius Censorinus – and perhaps belong to their novelty) renamed the financed Sextilis to Augustus in the magnitude of Octavian, and, by hypocrisy, lengthened it by a star, because the merits of Augustus could not be suitable considered inferior to those of decoration…

The complementary sunflower in August was balanced by one day less in February. To count the subrogation of 3 salaries of 31 days, the consortium of monthly payments of 30 and 31 days were reversed in September, October, Brumaire and December.